It can also be called a covering letter.
For more Cover Letter Tips, check out this article on The Muse:
A lot of job seekers today wonder if a cover letter is still appropriate to send with your resume—and the answer is yes! And just like with your resume, you should make a customized version that talks about how your skills will benefit the particular company that you want to work for, and demonstrate how you have done some research into what the organization's pain points are. Remember: You're selling yourself in a resume and a cover letter, but the employer has to want to buy.
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From cover letter examples to templates, Monster's experts have got you covered! Find sample cover letters for different careers and job industries.
Cover letters. As much as they require more work, cover letters are a great opportunity to cover qualifications we can’t fully explain in our resumes. And, they help personalize job applicants to enable them to come across more as real people to potential employers. If you throw together a cover letter in the hopes that nobody will actually read it, you might be missing a chance to land the job. To take advantage of a cover letter's full potential, follow these steps below. You’ll find advice on formatting, reviewing, and researching cover letters. You will also find links to three free samples which you can copy and adapt to your own personal cover letter.The covering letter is vital to your CV. This is why it is the first page and not an addition. "Please find enclosed my CV" won't get you very far.